In general, HVAC or heating, ventilating, and air conditioning systems are designed to offer a comfortable and pleasant indoor atmosphere. However, most typical residential HVAC systems are fundamentally flawed from their conception.
How hard any air conditioning system needs to work relies on the design of the home structure, mainly the enclosure and the use of the building. It is worthwhile to know what an ideal HVAC system should be, and this article defines the features of a perfect HVAC system for both single-family single-zone residential and multi-zone housing applications.
Small Residential HVAC Systems
In practice, it is viable in small residential systems to use an air handler and air-conditioning duct system to distribute ventilation air all over the house. This combination of functions (ventilation and distribution of air conditioning) requires advanced controls to work and careful design to avoid unnecessary energy use. But it can work very well for a single-zone system like small single-family apartments and homes.
The primary concern in areas with humid climate is the lack of humidity control provided by standard HVAC systems. They can dispense only a random amount of dehumidification if and when the cooling works for long enough to let water to accumulate, build up on coils, and then drain down and away. This system takes about 15 minutes of a constant cooling process before dehumidification initiates. Therefore, a separate dehumidification device is essential for the perfect HVAC system. A lot of suppliers of dehumidification ventilation equipment or outdoor air unit are now available to help resolve this issue.
Together, these solutions offer the perfect practical demonstration of a residential HVAC system; that is ensuring a fresh air stream while regulating humidity, easy to manage and troubleshoot, and energy-efficient.
Larger Multi-Zone HVAC Systems
In bigger multi-zone housing, dispersing the much larger quantities of energy all throughout the building needs huge ducts and the related larger inter-floor spaces to lodge. Large pipes from central AC units also penetrate numerous zones of occupancy and fire separation, triggering all kinds of expense and performance complications. Hence, by separating the control of ventilation from the control of temperature and monitoring of dehumidification, simple to control but very robust and energy efficient systems result.
Similarly, it is ideal to make use of more practical approaches that offer equally effective performance. For instance, low-velocity fan coil units with ECM motors and dry coils that take air from the space and blends conditioned air back are now available. Not only are these more economical than radiant systems, but they also have a quicker response time.
To give neutral temperature ventilation air independently of heating or cooling in a single large zone or multi-zone spaces, make use of DOAS or dedicated outdoor air system. Such a system will correctly combine some form of ERV or HRV.
Consequently, as the demand for comfort, better indoor air quality, and energy efficiency grows, the combination of simple direct-coupled controls and decoupling the different required functions becomes imperative. Such systems are inexpensive to build, easier to commission and operate, and can save substantial amounts of energy, given good building enclosure design.