In the USA?

If you are in the United States of America, there are two incredible resources available to you: VATUSA and VATNA



This is a resource that you can learn a lot from, whether you are new to the virtual flight community or an old timer. This website can help keep you update on what is new and exciting in virtual flight simulation. They will often post up news articles pertaining to our community. They will also post when there are meetings or conventions in an area for virtual flight enthusiasts.

You can also sign up to become an air traffic controller. This will require time and training however, and you will need to go through the necessary steps for approval. Not anyone can just decide they want to be an air traffic controller, log on, and start giving directions. This helps to keep things organized and people from being confused.

There are quite a few policies on their website that you should look into as well. If you are thinking that this is starting to sound too complicated, remember this is a simulation of the real world! It means that you should act as if human lives are at stake. However, remember to also have fun and enjoy the trip!


VATNA is specifically targeted at the countries in North America. They actually oversee VATUSA. You can find country specific links on their website which will direct you to the correct country for your needs. Their website is not entirely user friendly, but you should be able to find the resources you need. If you need to get in contact with someone, here are the people you need to know:

Regional Staff

Nicola Felini – 1020845
Regional Director (VATNA1)

Tim Barber – 819096
Membership Director (VATNA3)

Ira Robinson – 1100092
Director of Strategic Development  (VATNA4)

Regional Conflict Resolution Panel

Steve Good – 878593

Bill Morris – 811950

Brian Pryor – 810138

Alex Lehman – 1244594

Greg McCormick – 964079

VATNA also has very serious policies which you should read and follow.

They have a pilot resource center where you can look view current certification offerings, as well as those pilots who have been recently certified.

If you so desire, you can join right through there website! They provide the correct links to VATSIM to register VATNA as your region.

Remember, this is a real life simulation. We have pilots who fly everyday in real life, who come onto this system to train and hone their skills. Please be courteous and respectful to other aviators on the system.

Virtual Flight Simulation

Have you ever wanted to fly an airplane but haven’t had the time or money to get lessons, or maybe you don’t want to purchase and maintain your own aircraft, but you still want to fly? Now you can, with virtual flight simulation. All you need is a computer and you can start flying today. With an internet connection, you can fly with thousands of other virtual pilots around the world, in real time! Never before have we had such an opportunity like this. It is truly a great time for aviators all over the world.

You can fly almost any airplane on any airline that you have dreamed about. Most airplanes have already been developed and added to the virtual reality. This is an ultra realistic virtual reality, a simulation of real life, so don’t expect it to come easy. If you haven’t had any training in flying, be sure to start studying now. You will need to know it when you join the simulation.

If you haven’t heard of virtual flight simulation, check out VATSIM for more information:

Quote from their website:

What is VATSIM?

VATSIM (short for the Virtual Air Traffic Simulation Network) is a completely free online platform which allows virtual pilots, wherever they are in the world, to connect their flight simulators into one shared virtual world. VATSIM also simulates air traffic control in this virtual world, creating the ultimate as-real-as-it-gets experience for you, the virtual aviation enthusiast.

With over 76,000 active members in 2014, connecting your flight simulator to VATSIM allows you to join hundreds of other pilots in our virtual skies, flying all kinds of aircraft all over the world. As a VATSIM member, you can join our many communities across the world to enhance your flying skills and flight simulator experience in a shared virtual airspace. You can also become a virtual air traffic controller, adding that extra bit of realism for you and your fellow enthusiasts. The real beauty of VATSIM is that it caters people who are completely new to the hobby as well as to the seasoned flight simmer.

The beginning

VATSIM was founded in July 2001 by a group of individuals who came together with the idea of creating an online community which truly met the needs of flight simulator enthusiasts across the world. As well as providing a common network for flight simulation enthusiasts to connect to, VATSIM aimed to create a global community for learning, sharing experiences and pursuing new opportunities in the virtual world. That original group of individuals are now referred to as the VATSIM Founders, and help to steer the direction of the network.

Our Structure

VATSIM is led by the Board of Governors, a group of individuals who each take on a specific specialism on the network to lead. The Board of Governors are supported by an Executive Committee, who represent the Regions of VATSIM, who are in turn supported by local staff structures. Everyone is a volunteer.

The VATSIM world is divided into Regions, then Divisions and finally local facilities, which take on a number of different names depending on where you are in the world. These structures help to build and maintain communities across the globe, providing resources, training and a place to share the experience of VATSIM wherever you are. VATSIM is also the main network for many established Virtual Airlines and other virtual flying groups, whose pilots populate our skies every day with hundreds of flights.

The most important part of the network is you: our members. You are free to enjoy VATSIM in the way you want to enjoy it, by flying, controlling, or both. VATSIM is a network for all to enjoy, and it can be whatever you make it. Welcome.

Browse around our site to learn more about the flying opportunities you have always dreamed of!

How To Select the Most Effective Plano Painting Contractor for Your Painting Task

A paint job for your residence is a significant undertaking so, uncovering a Plano painting contractor that might give you good painting services in Plano TX should be taken seriously. Before hiring any type of type of Plano painting contractor, establish first the sort of painting job you call for. Various kind of paint tasks might furthermore require numerous kinds of paint solutions from numerous service providers. That is, if the Plano painting contractors you have actually selected specializes on certain paint jobs.

How To Select the Most Effective Plano Painting Contractor for Your Painting Task

Prior to working with paint services from a professional, evaluate whether your home needs paint for the outside or does it only need paint for its inside. Although many professionals can using several kinds of painting solutions, it is still suggested to acknowledge simply what your residence requires in order to examine just how much it will definitely set you back.

Evaluate first simply exactly what needs to be done if you call for a paintwork for the exterior of your house. Outdoors locations of your house must analyze the trouble of the area that must be painted. Some items could need some repair work solution prior to any sort of paint could be effectively done on it. Doing this prevents the problem of paint remodel in addition to added prices.

Repainting the within your house is one more problem. It is not simply relating to utilizing paint on wall surfaces, it contains some improvements on cabinets or putting looks on certain walls. So, interior paint is more detail drivened than the exterior. The expert you deal with to supply the paint options should be incredibly details oriented yet does not miss out on the quality.

Picking the right Plano painting contractor to do the paint remedies for your home will certainly give you contentment. So, to prevent frustrations in addition to an inadequate job, take into consideration collaborating with the services of the painting experts. Ask close friends and colleagues for recommendations of professionals they have actually collaborated with for paint remedies in the past. You can furthermore analyze a listing of experts that use paint solutions in the sector’s directory website. One more strategy is to take a look at viewpoints of previous consumers on the expert’s website. Although it is not regularly recommended to trust those viewpoint, you would definitely not mean to work with an individual that have obtained greater than a couple of negative comments.

Frisco Residential Painter Recommended Stains for Sealing Fences

Wood fencings are a cost-effective way to broaden your space and also create a gorgeous setting to enjoying and also captivating in the outdoors. Wood wall surfaces are in direct call with rain as well as sunlight which deteriorate the fencings as the job against the life process of wood and corrodes it. In years, when there is damp or extremely warm weather; the rails are prone to break down. To boost the life of your wood fencing, a Frisco residential painter should seal it within a year of its installment.

Frisco Residential Painter Recommended Stains for Sealing Fences

Advantages of Sealing the fencings
Deck stains do the twin task of protecting rails from damaging UV rays of the sunlight and waterproofing the timber to conserve from water. Sealant prevents the timber to split or divide as well as maintains its natural color. Ultimately, a sealer extends the life of your wood fencing and also lowers your Frisco house painting maintenance price for several years to find.

Suggested fence stains
There are great deals and lots of wall surface stains on the Frisco painting service market, a lot of which any person can make use of with a little of study as well as prep work on the products should seal the wood as well as discolor. The choice of product depends upon after the amount of all-natural grain of timber you wish to display. The semi-transparent or clear product is good for you if you desire to reveal the wood’s natural elegance. Nontransparent ought to be your option if you want your timber to last longer then.

Below are a few of the types of coatings readily available and also the best options readily available for a Frisco residential painter. If you wish to explore the products which are out there, after that see Frisco painting contractors reports as they release their timber discolor buying guide yearly with the introduction of new items. They outline the long life duration and results of particular stains

Solid fencing stains
Solid wall stains have a life time of three years. A solid stain is a suitable selection for those individuals that do not mind dark wood grain as well as do not desire to reapply tarnish each year. A restriction to solid stains is that they might establish a film gradually and also peel, fracture or chip.

Semi-transparent fence stains
Semi-transparent stain partly allows your timber grain to reveal with. They are an outstanding selection for timbers with a natural finish like cedar, which you will wish to display on your house. These stains are not weather immune like solid solvents, and also you will have to re-apply them after two years.

Clear fencing stains
Brilliant rails stains do not contain pigment and water repellent. They are the perfect selection for those individuals, who want to maintain the natural grain of the timber. You have to re-apply this therapy yearly or your timber will transform grey. Clear treatments could have UV prevention as well as timber chemicals yet, fencing refinishing is a seasonal work.

Pricking fencing stains
On a standard, the price of a fencing tarnish lies between $28 and also $40 each container. You can typically locate these therapies at equipment or house depots. Remember to look for special during message or pre-summer period.

Conserve yourself from the difficulty of a clumsy DIY paint work! Contact your trusted specialist Frisco residential painter and request for a FREE paint quote today!

McKinney House Painting: The Proper Way to Paint Your Ceiling

To begin your McKinney house painting project, pour a gallon of paint right into a five-gallon bucket with a roller grid in it, empty regarding three-quarters of the paint. Desist from doing this in a huge adequate container as the five-gallon one to prevent constant breaks for a refill. The ceiling needs no time to completely dry before you finish. As such, guarantee you keep a wet edge when rolling the roof covering. Therefore, present with a roller grid in a five-gallon pail.

McKinney House Painting The Proper Way to Paint Your Ceiling

With the remaining quarter in your paint can, utilize a paintbrush and also apply the paint on all corners as well as edges of the ceiling. For you to obtain close with the roller, you need to reduce your swath at an average of 4 to five inches far from the roofing system. Nonetheless, if you are thinking of applying various colors on the wall, just extend the ceiling shade to an inch down the wall surface. Guarantee you paint every square inch of the roof. Nevertheless, if a McKinney house painter is to repaint the exact same shade on your walls as it gets on the ceiling, then the McKinney painter needs to paint the very same number of strokes on both sides. Concerning four-inch periods. After ending up a given area, refine your brush right into your damp side after your last brush. Do this prior to heading on to the next component of the ceiling to help prevent start marks and also blend to the previous stroke.

Time to Roll

You require some devices or tools in performing this McKinney house painting stage. Appropriate and also quality devices assure you a stable rolling procedure from your initial stroke to the last. Some of the tools you need are a roller cover that has a suitable roller handle, a roller post that is both state as well as extendable for ease and a roller cover. The type of roller cover, however, depends upon the sort of ceiling in play. For instance, finest manage textured ceilings utilizing half-inch roller cover, while a one and also a quarter inch roller cover are best for use on popcorn type ceilings.

The initial step aids you to come up with a constant uniform layer throughout the ceiling. Some specialist McKinney painting contractors favor moving towards the resource of light, while other like rolling across their standing placement. In whichever instructions you pick, ensure o utilize it all through for ideal results along with protecting against any kind of indicators of visible roller lines. You can attain a shadowing result if painting to the present source of light.

Rolling paint by laying it on and also off in areas without potentially providing it time to dry out off. Additionally referred to keeping a damp edge constantly, implying that you do not cover dried paint. If you are doing this, then it is similar to applying fresh paint on old coat ending up with undesirable marks. By walking around with a long post, you would certainly be shifting the amount of pressure on the roller, hence irregular outcomes. You could accomplish this by separating the ceiling right into equal sections, with the last strokes converging at the center of the roofing system. You could develop this according to the width and size of your roof covering for you to acquire a fixed placement. Enable to dry off in one or two hrs.

The specialists in McKinney house painting, McKinney Painting Experts, would enjoy to help you with your paint job! Call the true painting professionals today!

Allen Commercial Painter Paintbrush Cleaning Techniques

For water-based paintbrushes, the build-up on the artificial bristle brush asks for the Allen commercial painter fave, the Krud-Kutter, which is right at the removal of the latex paint that dried out on the brush with marginal ecological dangers after which a quick clean in a gentler fluid finishes the work nicely.

Allen Commercial Painter Paintbrush Cleaning Techniques

A container and also 2 paint thinners is a series of the minimal strategy to cleaning up the all-natural bristle brushes. A tbsp of the thinner in a jar paired with the complete working of the brush via functions a great deal. Vacant the unclean thinner right into one more could of its very own. The liquid thinner held up in the brush squeezed out delicately until the brush is clean. The brush is after that, is dipped and also worked thoroughly in the container, once again pressed and also the process repeated up until the fluid appearing of the brush is tidy. Artificial bristles could not take as much whipping as the all-natural bristles.

Repaint slimmers melt most plastics as well as are thus not recommended by expert Allen painting contractors. Mark among the jars and also marble arranged at the bottom for working the brush. For the oil-based brushes, sticking in and mixing does not function. For determined steps, the collapsed home window display pieces could likewise get the job done, yet the main downside is that it takes place to be tough on bristles. The paint thinners are highly flammable as well as really hazardous and also thus disposed appropriately to minimize the ecological risks.

Cleaning agent soaps are not suggested by a specialist Allen commercial painter. A chemically assigned as well as actual soap gets the job done particularly those with fat or oil as ingredients. Use a cellulose sponge to work up the brush throughout it or versus the palm. Rinsing helps in reducing opportunities of paint sticking on the sinks or back patio areas. Doing this leads natural putting on delayed the brush as well as not reach unload them away sooner than anticipated.

The suggestion is likewise applicable on synthetic brushes. Leaving of soap on the bristles contaminates the paint in the succeeding painting work. The result is a bad shade movie. Some shades take place to be such and also really exotic demands nitrite handwear covers in addition to a respirator. For a hydrocarbon-based paint, a fat soap works well. Acetone eliminates brushes initially and also hence a best method is necessary for its usage. Again, soap is liked, as the bristles need conditioning.

The gunky nasty discuss brushes asks for an oil fluid soap from the neighborhood grocery store into which the brush saturated. Dip the brush for three to four days nonstop as recommended by an expert Allen commercial painter.

Soap is not perfect on watercolor brushes. This is a method released by many a Allen commercial painting contractor. The solvent made use of is reduced to an absolute minimum. Taking part in the use of 12 ounces or a mug of thinner decreases direct exposure aside from blowing through gallon. Lead is likewise present in it.

If you’re trying to look for a great Allen house painter to trust your paint task with, why not call the painting experts in Allen today?

Facts Technicians Must Know Regarding HVAC Certification

Heating, Ventilation and Air Condition technicians are personnel charged with the responsibility of the HVAC systems. The repair, maintenance, and installation are the major activities they do. Before practicing as an HVAC technician’s, the law requires that they obtain a license or certification to allow them to venture into the field.

HVAC CertificationThe HVAC certification accords any persons charged with the responsibility of service, maintenance, and repair as well as the refrigerant disposals that release chemicals into the atmosphere from within the appliance.

Personnel encompassed with the duty of engaging in container opening and handling that are refrigerant controlled; they are required to have specific certification referred to as Section 608 certification.

There are four types of certification the HVAC technicians must qualify for before they are let out into the professional field and start practicing maintenance, service, repair or the disposal of chemicals within the section 608 of certification. Based on the different job type personnel goes into, it’s unnecessary for aspiring technicians to undertake of all the four certifications.

Some important and essential facts about the HVAC that an aspiring technician must know include:

Type 1 certification.

This certification form is for personals that are involved in servicing appliances that are relatively small like window air conditioners, domestic refrigerators, and vending machines.

Type 2 certification.

These technicians mainly deal with the servicing and high-pressure refrigerant equipment disposal. These include the heat pumps, residential conditioners as well as supermarket refrigeration

Type 3 certification.

The primary job of those accorded the type 3 of certification is to dispose and service equipment of low-pressure refrigerants. The only tool in this category are the chillers.

Universal Certification.

This certification mainly accords to technicians who can service all the equipment.

There exist certain exams that a technician has to pass before he receives the EPA certification. The exams consist of 100 items divided into 25 core items and other series of 25 type one, two and three questions. Passing the exams calls for at least 18 correct answers from all the sections averaging at 72% to acquire certification.

However, if an aspiring technician does well in the core questions but passes only one of the other types, they are accorded the certification of the passed exams. The certifications also give room for the retake of a failed test.

Education and training requirements.

For HVAC technicians, a minimum of six months to two years training is mandatory. Undertake all training programs in certified and accredited institutions and technical schools. The good news is different local unions offer sponsorship throughout the apprenticeship and training programs.

Some of the requirements for the technicians to obtain certificates and licensing include:

  • The simple act of excelling in a state exam.
  • The minimum training period allocated must have been completed from a certified institution.
  • You need to show proof of previous work in some countries.
  • Excellent physical condition.

Other traits that can lead to the accordance of certification include:

  • They must have an inclination towards Mechanical practices.
  • The ability to understand and comprehend technical drawings, charts, and graphs
  • Must be well equipped in the operation of electrical devices.
  • They must be well aware and inclined towards observing and upholding safety measures.
  • Must be well conversant with troubleshooting skills.

Some of the advantages attached to licensing and certification include the promotion to service managers, supervisory positions or even the sales and marketing job.

Do HVAC UV Lights for AC Systems Improve Indoor Air Quality

The introduction and application of the UV light in treating tuberculosis in 1903 has since prompted the use of UV lights in very many practical fields. Based on the effectiveness of the UV light, it has since prompted researchers to find out how it might be applicable in the improvement of indoor air quality for HVAC systems. Results of the research indicated positive results, but call for a clear and vivid understanding of the facts on indoor air quality as well the UV types available for HVAC systems.

HVAC UV Lights for AC SystemsMold-Carrier-Air-Handler

Molds are known to accumulate within the conditioning systems over extended periods of time with poor maintenance and servicing. Poor servicing and maintenance pose dangerous health conditions to the occupants of the affected house. Mold menace is regulated by installing UV lighting within the conditioner that kills all molds in its path, and this is supposed to remain on 24 hours in a day.

The installation of the UV is as simple as attaching it with a strong magnet within the air handler followed by directly wiring into the air handler.

Types of UV lights for HAVC systems:

Coil Sterilization

Considered as the most common type of HVAC UV lighting. It runs throughout the day and night. Often installed within the return air ducts neighboring the sterilizers, it’s moderately priced making it accessible by a large number of people.

Air Sterilization

Just as the name suggests, the type of UV lighting is known to sterilize the moving air. Its installation is usually within the return air ducts and as such cycle with the handle air blower.

  • Research had been carried out to validate the effectiveness the light in bacteria and mold elimination.
  • Research based within the hospital projected a 97% efficiency in the removal of bacteria from different hospital rules.
  • The Germicidal UV radiation also proved useful in the elimination fungi within the air handling units based on research done in a commercial building.


Just like any other home system and appliance, the UV lighting system is also eligible for high and constant regular checks to keep it in good shape and working state. The durability of the light bulb is estimated to last approximately 9000 hours, which can again be rounded off to approximately a year and hence the bulb replacement is supposed to be done annually to maintain a clean air handling unit. An HVAC personnel be made aware of the systems state on an annual basis to help with the servicing and the repair of the air handler systems. It’s a positive move as it helps ensure an ever functional and hazard free air conditioning systems.

Energy consumption

When it comes to issues associated with power consumption, the bulb does not consume a lot of energy that would render it a liability besides the fact the fact that it guarantees clean non-polluted air. It’s thus safe to have it switched on throughout day and night for its entire duration of functionality without having to worry about accumulating bills. It does not consume energy that would get one worried whenever they think about it.

Common Health Issues From Air Conditioning Overuse

The extreme weather conditions have made the air conditioning a paramount system in most homes. Other than relaxation created during extreme weather conditions, keeping an air conditioning unit running round the clock poses some significant health effects besides the high electrical bill it also brings along with it.

Common Health Issues From Air Conditioning OveruseActually, over exposure to the conditioning is harmful and hazardous to your health. Indoor discomfort can be attached to the particular illnesses especially with overuse. Some common diseases associated with the central air conditioning includes:

Indoor Air Pollution

Research has it that indoor air pollution has a far much greater effect compared to the counterpart outdoor air pollution. Poorly ventilated homes or those that happen to contain allergens can bring with it headaches, itchy eyes, nasal issues, difficulty in breathing or even dizziness. Pneumonia and Asthma attacks can also arise in extreme conditions. Persistent pollution leads to more gross and severe conditions.

Nasal passages and Dry Skin

Exposure to the central air conditioning for longer hours associated with drying of the skin. Adequate miniaturization of the surface aids in the reduction of itchy skin.

Respiratory illness and Colds

Alert from dry skin, the mucous membrane also tend to be dried out. This state further creates vulnerability to upper respiratory infections. Fatigue and a whole lot of other related infections can also occur.

Heat Intolerance

Long-term exposure to the air conditioning creates heat intolerance should one go outside the house. Exhaustion may also arise as a result of the outdoor heat. Persons spending lots of time in air-conditioned rooms tend to experience headaches, dizziness, heat stroke and even breathing difficulties.

Ear irritations and Worsened Allergies

Individuals suffering from allergies can have experience worsened symptoms due to constant running of the air conditions. Such environment is worse for people with poorly maintained symptoms. Mold circulation in the atmosphere leads to accumulation in the folds of the ears hence the drying out. The possibility of bleeding can also not be ruled out. For poorly maintained conditioners, the constant noise is also capable of causing hearing damages.

Common Causes

Uncleansed duct works and vents, dirty filters and overall poor maintenance are the possible causes of mold and the other contaminants responsible for the pollution and hence the hazards.

Safe Use of the Air Conditioning System

According to the manual provided by the manufacturer, the air filters units should be cleaned appropriately or replaced when need be. C.

Excellent ventilation is also a necessity to curb the menace of indoor pollution by the allowance of fresh air into the house. Opening the windows as well as turning off the conditioning system is suitable for maximum air circulation.

If nobody is at home and in the night, it’s advisable to put out the system as this helps in the reduction of flow of harmful particles, should they exist.

Constant exposure to the air conditioning system coupled with poor circulation is attached to a whole lot health hazards for both the adults and children, calling for professional maintenance to reduce as well as eliminate the possible health risks.

The Right HVAC Systems for Your Home

In general, HVAC or heating, ventilating, and air conditioning systems are designed to offer a comfortable and pleasant indoor atmosphere. However, most typical residential HVAC systems are fundamentally flawed from their conception.

HVAC SystemHow hard any air conditioning system needs to work relies on the design of the home structure, mainly the enclosure and the use of the building. It is worthwhile to know what an ideal HVAC system should be, and this article defines the features of a perfect HVAC system for both single-family single-zone residential and multi-zone housing applications.

Small Residential HVAC Systems

In practice, it is viable in small residential systems to use an air handler and air-conditioning duct system to distribute ventilation air all over the house. This combination of functions (ventilation and distribution of air conditioning) requires advanced controls to work and careful design to avoid unnecessary energy use. But it can work very well for a single-zone system like small single-family apartments and homes.

The primary concern in areas with humid climate is the lack of humidity control provided by standard HVAC systems. They can dispense only a random amount of dehumidification if and when the cooling works for long enough to let water to accumulate, build up on coils, and then drain down and away. This system takes about 15 minutes of a constant cooling process before dehumidification initiates. Therefore, a separate dehumidification device is essential for the perfect HVAC system. A lot of suppliers of dehumidification ventilation equipment or outdoor air unit are now available to help resolve this issue.

Together, these solutions offer the perfect practical demonstration of a residential HVAC system; that is ensuring a fresh air stream while regulating humidity, easy to manage and troubleshoot, and energy-efficient.

Larger Multi-Zone HVAC Systems

In bigger multi-zone housing, dispersing the much larger quantities of energy all throughout the building needs huge ducts and the related larger inter-floor spaces to lodge. Large pipes from central AC units also penetrate numerous zones of occupancy and fire separation, triggering all kinds of expense and performance complications. Hence, by separating the control of ventilation from the control of temperature and monitoring of dehumidification, simple to control but very robust and energy efficient systems result.

Similarly, it is ideal to make use of more practical approaches that offer equally effective performance. For instance, low-velocity fan coil units with ECM motors and dry coils that take air from the space and blends conditioned air back are now available. Not only are these more economical than radiant systems, but they also have a quicker response time.

To give neutral temperature ventilation air independently of heating or cooling in a single large zone or multi-zone spaces, make use of DOAS or dedicated outdoor air system. Such a system will correctly combine some form of ERV or HRV.

Consequently, as the demand for comfort, better indoor air quality, and energy efficiency grows, the combination of simple direct-coupled controls and decoupling the different required functions becomes imperative. Such systems are inexpensive to build, easier to commission and operate, and can save substantial amounts of energy, given good building enclosure design.


HVAC System Types for Homes

Conducting energy assessments in your home and installing additional insulations are regular practices a homeowner needs to know. You need to decide the best HVAC system type for the home that will best suit its purpose. Latest HVAC systems provide numerous options as compared to their previous inventions which were designed to perform one or two specific functions. Therefore, which is the best HVAC system type for your home?

  1. HVAC System TypesCooling systems

Present day air conditioning systems come in a variety of types and sizes. The kind of air conditioner you decide to choose will depend on the climate of the area you live in as well as the already installed system. Individuals residing in the south would probably want to condition the whole house, calling for a whole-house air conditioning unit. Northern habitats, on the other hand, would opt for a portable air conditioning unit that can be placed on the window and moved at any other time. Present day air conditioners only consume between 50 and 70 percent energy to produce the same outcome as the olden day cooling units.

  1. Single-stage or Multi-stage

Single stage cooling systems are more prevalent in areas with hot and humid climates while heating systems are best used in areas with colder winter climates as compared to Multi-stage systems. Single-stage systems have one major disadvantage which is, they operate at full capacity all year round, thereby limiting the user’s ability to control them. However, multi-stage heating and cooling systems are manufactured with fan speeds that vary so as to create an air flow that changes. You may not feel a great difference between the two systems, but one is most definitely much better than the other.

  1. Zoned systems

With zoned HVAC systems, you can selectively set the specific areas or rooms in your home where you need to heat or cool. With zoned systems, you are guaranteed of efficiency and effectiveness with as little energy as possible.

  1. Humidity control

For areas with humid climate or drier conditions, humidifiers and dehumidifiers are two control systems that need not miss on your list of HVAC system upgrades. With these methods, one can easily control the levels of humidity in their homes by using a few buttons. However, you can only be able to monitor the levels of humidity when your air conditioning unit is on.

  1. Heating systems

The U.S department of energy highlights that modern day heating systems have the ability to attain maximum efficiency by converting fuel to useful heat energy for use in your home. Heating systems including furnaces, electric heater and pumps.

  1. Retrofit options

There exist numerous ways that you can opt to use for repairing or fixing your heating systems. These are ways that are much more efficient as well as cheap. For instance, a crude oil and gas-fired furnaces and boilers; you can close off and prevent the loss of air by adding a vent damper.

  1. HVAC Overhaul: Deep energy retrofit

Tweaking aquastats for heated water boilers would modify high water temperatures to match with the external environment sparing up to 10% of the costs of fuel. The procedure by which such overhauls work is somewhat complicated. However, they can be integrated with most cooling systems and pumps.

Hazards from HVAC Refrigerant Homeowners Should Know

Taking safety measures when working with HVAC refrigerant can help avoid hazardous circumstances and injuries. If not dealt with promptly, some HVAC systems issues can trigger an explosion. Though an old furnace isn’t exactly a ticking time bomb, it isn’t a toaster also.

Hazards from HVAC RefrigerantAdditionally, obvious hazards such as electrical wiring, sharp metal, and climbing ladders, the technician or homeowners who are DIY novices that intend to clean or repair their HVAC system need to be aware of the safety risks that refrigerants pose.

If the refrigerant remains confined in the cylinder, then it presents little danger to people. The risk occurs when the refrigerant comes out of the container, often fast and suddenly. Thus, regular maintenance and safety checks should be regularly implemented to avoid potential health risks and damages.

Consistent inspections on containers and systems for holding pressure, and preparing safety procedures and equipment to lessen personal exposure after sudden releases should help prevent any damage or injuries when handling refrigerants.

Refrigerant hazards from fall into three categories:

  1. flammability/combustion/decomposition
  2. toxicity
  3. pressure


  1. Flammability/Combustion/Decomposition

Combustible refrigerants present an immediate peril when released into the air. The refrigerant can mix with air at atmospheric pressure and ignite, producing a flame and perchance an explosion to happen. The utilization of flammable refrigerants is limited to controlled environments that have the explosion-proof equipment, monitors, proper ventilation, and mostly few people near the system because of the apparent hazards.

  1. Toxicity and personal exposure

Before being released for air conditioning use, most refrigerants go through extensive toxicity testing. Testing includes a range of exposure levels and times to define any likely effects on test animals.

Brief exposures at high concentrations show any acute health risks such as irritation, sensitization of the heart or adrenaline and lethal concentration. Likewise, experiments that expose animals for extended periods of time, such as three months to two years, are intended to show chronic problems. These can include changes to cells or mutagenicity, effects on organs or carcinogenicity, and reproductive problems.

1,000 ppm is the maximum value for any chemical, though many refrigerants have presented no negative results in toxicity tests in much greater volume than that. Other chemical producers have related exposure level indexes based on the similar criteria. These are the WEEL or Workplace Environmental Exposure Limit set by the AIHA or American Industrial Hygiene Association; PEL or Permissible Exposure Limit established by OSHA; as well as AEL or Acceptable Exposure Limit utilized by DuPont.

To the HVAC technician, what all of this data means, however, is that refrigerants, in general, are safe enough to use provided you don’t inhale too much of them.

  1. Physical hazards

One of the most obvious risks of refrigerant is the fact that it’s a liquefied gas under pressure. Unexpected, sudden release of pressurized refrigerant can result in personal injury.

Moreover, liquid refrigerant will flash and boil to vapor when suddenly released from high pressure to atmospheric pressure. As you would expect, the temperature of the refrigerant will descend rapidly to the boiling point and the refrigerant will absorb heat fast and can cause frostbite if it touches your skin.

The best way to avoid pressure-related risks is always to use cylinders and system components that have the defined pressure rating for the refrigerant you’re using. Pressure ratings for system components must be selected based on the expected service loads for the intended purpose. Constantly check for signs of excessive wear or damage before filling recovery cylinders, buying new refrigerant cylinders or installing new parts to a system.